Т-90 против Абрамс глазами... "Армата" на старте.

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Re: Т-90 против Абрамс глазами... "Армата" на старте.

Сообщение EvMitkov » 16 авг 2013, 19:11

Почему нет? К вечерку сделаю. Выложу пока в оригинале, на британской мове, чутка попозже - переведу.
Не пытайтесь загнать меня в угол - тогда я добрый
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Re: Т-90 против Абрамс глазами... "Армата" на старте.

Сообщение Andreas » 16 авг 2013, 19:19

Большое спасибо. Щиро дякую. Thank you very match

К сожалению, больше языков не знаю (кроме административного).
"Всё будет так, как мы хотим. На случай разных бед, У нас есть пулемёт Максим, У них Максима нет"
Hilaire Belloc, "The Modern Traveller" (C)
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Re: Т-90 против Абрамс глазами... "Армата" на старте.

Сообщение Володя » 16 авг 2013, 20:49

Что ж Вы так Андрей! А "бардзо дзенькуе" на польской мове не вспомнили!
Всем привет из Обетованой... Канады!
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Re: Т-90 против Абрамс глазами... "Армата" на старте.

Сообщение Andreas » 16 авг 2013, 21:02

Вы там, в Обетованной, на солнце перегрелись - сказано же, четырЯми язЫками владею (со словарём) :lol:
"Всё будет так, как мы хотим. На случай разных бед, У нас есть пулемёт Максим, У них Максима нет"
Hilaire Belloc, "The Modern Traveller" (C)
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Re: Т-90 против Абрамс глазами... "Армата" на старте.

Сообщение EvMitkov » 16 авг 2013, 22:00

У нас, на Дону сегодня - жарче, чем в Обетованной - в тени до 39 градусов пополудни на поле. А на солнышке - не замерял.
Вот материал, о котором говорил Андрей:


ARMOR — March-April 1995

Ammunition Loading Systems
for Future Tanks


by Dr. Asher H. Sharoni and Lawrence D. Bacon

Introduction

The past three decades have witnessed
a profound and ever broadening
interest in the development of automation
for armored combat vehicles. This
has evolved through “human factors
engineering” to “man-machine interface”
to “Manprint,” with the ultimate
goal being to achieve autonomous operation
of many complex subsystem
functions with minimal labor or human
intervention. The major drivers in this
trend toward autonomous operation
have been lethality, survivability and
strategic transportability, as well as the
ever-increasing complexity of combat
vehicle systems introduced by rapid
technological change. One of the last
frontiers in the U.S. main battle tank is
the inevitable automation of the Ammunition
Loading System (ALS).
Advanced electro-optics, fire controls,
kinetic penetrators, and turret stabilization
systems enable the crew to acquire,
engage, and destroy targets at
greater ranges while aggressively moving
cross-country. This accurate, fireon-
the-move capability is now limited
only by the loader’s ability to ram another
round into the breech while undergoing
the disorienting effects of roll,
pitch, and yaw in a 40 m.p.h.-capable
M1A1/A2 Abrams Tank! Automation
can provide consistent and high reload
rates under fairly extreme cross-country
conditions.
One of the advanced survivability features
of the current Abrams Tank is the
compartmentalization of the 120-mm
ammunition, which affords the crew a
high level of protection from the effects
of secondary explosions if the magazine
is penetrated. This protection is diminished
during round transfer for
loading, at which time the large magazine
door is briefly opened. Automation
of the loading process can reduce the
time period of exposure, as well as reduce
the area which must be opened to
handle the round.
Future tanks will be required to provide
the same (or higher) level of crew
protection as the M1A2 Abrams, but at
a substantially reduced gross vehicle
weight (40-50 tons). Some weight reduction
will be realized through advanced
composite armor and active vehicle
defense systems, but most weight
savings will be realized through the reduction
of the overall armor envelope.
This means lowering the crew size,
which in turn requires reducing the
crew’s workload and enhancing crew
efficiency and combat effectiveness
through automation. The reduction in
tank size will positively affect survivability
and significantly enhance the
ability to deploy U.S.-based combat
power abroad.
The Future Main Battle Tank (FMBT)
must capitalize on a revolutionary design
and development philosophy as a
completely integrated, multipurpose
weapon system. Since one of the principal
contributors to lethality is the
main gun rate of fire (ROF), it must be
considered as a major design driver for
any future tank configuration. Consequently,
future tanks (and major upgrades
to existing tanks) will most
likely be equipped with an Automatic
Loading System (ALS) that reduces
crew workload and allows an unprecedented,
continuous rate of fire while on
the move. The main gun and the ALS
must be considered as a fully integrated
weapon system to reflect the close interrelationship
and dependency between
the gun, ammunition, and lethality.
FMBTs and major tank upgrades will
be equipped with state-of-the-art Battlefield
Management Systems (BMS)
and fire control systems. These systems
will be comprised of multi-sensor targeting
and fire control with automatic
air/ground target acquisition through
thermal imagery and/or millimeterwave
radar processing and tracking.
The BMS will provide a day/night integrated
armament system capable of
automatically engaging multiple targets,
with the option of no human intervention.
A high rate automatic loader
must be incorporated to fully exploit
the capability of modern battlefield
management systems and “fire-on-themove”
lethality. Automation lessens the
crew workload and makes it feasible to
contemplate novel tank configurations
and smaller tank crews.
An automatic loading system permits
development of an unmanned turret
and lends itself favorably to the reduction
of the four-man crew. It substantially
increases the rate of fire under all
conditions, provides the capability to
rapidly engage multiple targets and ultimately
contributes to the tank’s overall
survivability. An unmanned turret
dramatically reduces volume and
weight, yielding a much lighter tank
with a smaller silhouette. If the conventional
manned turret arrangement is
maintained in the future, or if an automatic
loading system is introduced into
an existing tank turret, the fourth crew
member’s role could be expanded to
data management and target acquisition,
or else eliminated. For example,
the introduction of battlefield management
into the M1A2 may be best exploited
by a full-time data manager.
Tank maintenance, perimeter security
and the 24-hour battlefield are other
considerations in establishing crew size
(The three-versus-four-man-crew is a
doctrinal issue and should not be driven
by engineering considerations.)
Since lethality is a principal design
driver, any rational design approach for
a future main battle tank will commence
with the selection of the armament
system, to include the main gun
and the ALS, continue with the selection
of a conventional or unmanned
turret, and conclude with the remainder
of the tank literally “built” around the
integrated weapon system.
The purpose of this article is to discuss
various design approaches to
Automatic Loading Systems (ALS) and
to outline the effect they may have on
the overall tank configuration and its
combat effectiveness. Our commentary
will be based upon the design experience
accumulated through 16 years of
involvement in various U.S. ammunition
autoloading development programs, and through expertise the
authors have developed over a career of
involvement with main battle tanks of
European, U.S., and Soviet design. In
the discussion of different design approaches,
we will provide a brief overview
of previous experience in various
ALS design and development programs
undertaken for the U.S. military.

General Dynamics Tank Test Bed
Demonstration Vehicle


In 1983, the U.S. Army Tank Automotive
Command (TACOM) awarded a
contract for design, fabrication, and
demonstration of a 120-mm “brassboard”
autoloader transfer mechanism.
This device was required to cycle ammunition
from a designated storage position
to a simulated gun breech and
back, at 12 rounds/minute, while leaving
no witness marks on the fragile
combustible case after the completion
of 20 loading repetitions per round.
Following successful demonstration of
this “proof-of-principle” device, a follow-
on contract was awarded to design,
build, and test the full-up autoloader in
the Tank Test Bed turret.
The TTB Autoloader, as depicted in
Figures 1 through 3 (showing the autoloader
major components and the
Transfer Unit in particular), was a conspicuous
success. The system consisted
of a 44-round capacity “carousel” type
mechanized magazine, located in an
unmanned turret basket; a fully articulated
Transfer Unit (including a rammer)
positioned at the rear of the M256
120-mm cannon in the turret bustle;
and a microprocessor-based, Electronic
Control Unit (ECU).
The system was electrohydraulically
powered to utilize the existing turret
power supply, and established a new
performance baseline in the heretofore
unpretentious field of ALS.
The TTB Autoloader successfully
performed an entire array of designated
functions which are typical requirements
for a “generic” main battle tank
autoloader:
• Rapid fire reloading of the M256
cannon at a maximum rate of 12
rounds/minute.
• Automatic ejection of spent stubcases
through a small door at the
rear of the turret.
• Ejection of misfired rounds.
• Restoring and optimally rearranging
(inventorying) unfired rounds in the carousel as a result of a cease fire
or change of fire command.
• A “soft-present” mode of operation
which allows the crew to easily and
safely download ammunition from
the weapon station through the
ejection door at the rear of the turret.
• An upload mode, also performed at
the rear of the turret at a rate of 6 to
8 rounds/minute.
The control system performed an inventory
management function allowing
it to quickly cycle to the nearest available
selected round while minimizing
center of gravity offsets and power requirement fluctuations. The system incorporated
complete actuator redundancy,
which allowed continued operation,
albeit at a lower rate, when a single
point actuator failure occurred. This
added reliability feature proved the feasibility
of a remotely operated weapon
system, and allowed consideration of a
three-man vehicle crew as well.




System cycling tests exceeded 66,000
total rounds loaded and were highly
successful in their results. Testing included
an extensive demonstration period
completed on the TACOM Vehicle
Motion Simulator, during which ammunition
was cycled while the weapon
station was concurrently being
“shaken” in a true fire-on-the-move
simulation as depicted in Figure 4.
The Tank Test Bed system consisted
of two major mechanical subsystems:
1) A rotating magazine below the turret
ring that stored 44 rounds of ammunition;
and
2) A Transfer Unit assembly which
provided all functions required to load,
unload, present, on-load, off-load, and
immediately dispose of spent stub
cases and misfires.
The autoloader was designed to accommodate
a sustained rate of fire of
10 rounds/minute (with a maximum of
12 rds/min.) and had an empty weight
of less than 1,400 lbs. The 44 rounds
stored in the magazine were individually
protected, supported, and isolated
by full-length canisters, which enveloped
and supported the rounds.



The magazine design allowed ready capacity
expansion to 48 rounds, if required,
and up to a 60-round complement was
feasible.
Electric power consumption was negligible,
limited to that required to command
pilot operated servo valves and
low power sensors. The system was
unique in that it was a “no-spring” design
and did not rely on spring-loaded components of any kind for autoloader
operation.
The transfer unit featured a hydraulically
actuated rammer system designed
to limit tensile loads applied to the
stub-case to 110 pounds maximum (approximately
2 g’s, including gravity)
and to limit compression loads applied
to 220 lbs max (approximately 4 g’s).
Stub-cases and misfires were ejected
overboard at a velocity of approximately
11 ft/sec. Ejection was due aft
and level through a single ejection
port/loading access door.

FASTDRAW Mechanized Magazine



In the mid-1980s, an alternative ammunition
handling system was considered
for the M1A1 that incorporated a
mechanized rotary magazine, as depicted
in Figures 6 and 7. Developed in
cooperation with General Dynamics,
FASTDRAW was an extremely lightweight,
robust, and reliable system with
numerous important advantages over
“traditional” stationary rack-type storage
systems. The 36-round system
(identical twin magazines) was designed
for the 120-mm equipped M1
tank series, but can feasibly be reconfigured
for a reduced ammunition complement
in lighter vehicles and in
smaller (105-mm) caliber ammunition.
The most consequential features of the
FASTDRAW approach to tank ammunition
storage were:

• Significantly reduced blast door
complexity and sealing requirements,
which yielded enhanced
crew safety and survivability.
• Complete separation of the two ammunition
compartments by a solid
armored wall, which would provide
enhanced vehicle survivability and
fightability in the event of an ammunition
compartment penetration.
• Automatic presentation of the selected
type of ammunition to the
loader, as opposed to the loader
searching the rack for the required
type of round.
• Reduced bustle structural weight
and complexity — in the case of
the M1A1 tank, 350 lbs.
• Instant accessibility of all of the
stored rounds, no “disassembly” of
the rack required to reach rounds in
the corners of the bustle.
• Complete inter-round fratricide protection.



FASTDRAW could have been powered
either electrically or hydraulically
through a simple, precise Geneva drive
mechanism. FASTDRAW’s weight advantage
resulted from the honeycomblike
structural assembly, wherein the
canisters themselves provide mutual
support and rigidity, eliminating the
need for heavy fore and aft structural
support plates.
The FASTDRAW approach also provided
the intrinsic benefit of built-in
growth options, or pre-planned product
improvements. The function of the
carousel(s) bringing the ammunition to
a single extraction point, lends itself favorably
to the replacement of the
fourth crewman with a robotic ammunition
transfer unit. This transfer unit
would work the same way as the TTB
device, with the exception of an additional
lateral pair of actuators required
to shift the transfer unit from the magazine
pick-off plane to full alignment
with the gun tube and breech at the
loading position.

Block III Tank Autoloader

The joint venture company
AVTA (FMC/General
Dynamics Land Systems),
was awarded a
contract for design, development,
prototype fabrication,
and test of a nextgeneration
main battle
tank, which incorporated
a 140-mm autoloader system.
This highly complex requirement
involved storage, transfer and loading
of an extremely fragile, “two-piece”
140-mm round that measured 1.5 meters
in overall length. The round’s fragility
required particular attention to
shock and vibration during storage,
handling, and transfer, with emphasis
on controlled deceleration to ensure
“soft” stops.
Figures 8 and 9 are illustrations depicting
several conceptual Block III designs
which took into consideration an
overall vehicle integration approach.
Figure 8 depicts the ALS with a 40-
round capacity transverse magazine arrangement,
a “round swapper,” a 4-
round carousel, and a transfer unit. The
principal round path is from the storage
magazine through the swapper, to the
carousel, to the transfer unit, and finally
to the gun. Figure 9 depicts a different
configuration of the ALS, with a
longitudinal magazine arrangement,
turntable, dual round swappers, an elevation
rack mechanism, and a transfer
unit. Both approaches utilized a canister
which may or may not be an integral
part of the ammunition packaging)
that provides the necessary protection
and ensures round integrity at all times.
The introduction of the canister concept
requires the utilization of a swapper
to swap full with empty canisters.
The concept depicts a well integrated
ALS in the tank and shows the feasibility
of such a system when incorporated
into a new tank design configuration.
The Block III Tank Program was terminated
due to reprioritization of the
threat, although the 140-mm cannon
development will most likely continue.
Due to the still-current sensitivity of
the technology involved with this program,
much detail of our ALS design
cannot yet be released.



Future Main Battle Tank (FMBT)

Figure 5 shows a conceptual design
of an ALS for a FMBT based on the
TTB autoloader prototype. This concept
was a winning entry in a contest
held by ARMOR magazine for the design
of a FMBT. This innovative derivative
provides continuous theoretical
15-16 rounds/minute loading rate capability.
The system is automatic, compact,
computer controlled, electrically
operated, lightweight, highly reliable,
and remotely operated. It stores forty
rounds of all types, which are readily
available in a rotary, conical-shaped
magazine with anti-fratricide provisions.
The autoloader is integrally installed
in an unmanned, turreted “weapon station” with maximum protection
for the crew and ammunition by
way of compartmentalization and positioning
of warheads as low as possible
in the hull, adjacent to “blow-off” panels.
This conceptual system offers full inventory
control, optional round replacement
and a misfire ejection port that
will interface with an automated reload
system such as the Future Armor Resupply
Vehicle (FARV). An additional
23 rounds are stored low in the rear of
the hull in a reserve magazine. An additional
transfer mechanism can be devised to automatically transfer rounds
from the reserve magazine to the ready
magazine. This arrangement would
make the entire complement of 63
rounds available to the ALS without
the crew leaving its compartment. This
feature is particularly important when
the tank is operating in a contaminated
NBC environment, where leaving the
crew compartment is undesirable. The
ALS and the Battlefield Management
System combined provide a superior
kill capability and substantially increase
shock effect and weapon system
lethality.
Conclusion
The main battle tank will remain a viable,
necessary weapon system for the
foreseeable future. Continued technological
improvements will result in reduced
volume and lighter vehicles, but
the tank’s historical mission will remain
the same: shock, mobility, and
firepower. Automatic loading systems
will become standard, providing reliable,
rapid reloading, thereby increasing
lethality. Crew member duties will
be readjusted to address other battlefield
management technological needs.
Efforts at TACOM and Picatinny Arsenal
to develop a 120-mm compact tank
autoloader and a 155-mm howitzer autoloader
are indications of this trend.
Just as we would never consider sending
an infantryman into battle with a
bolt-action rifle, future tank designs
will fully automate the loading function.





Western Design Corporation
(WDC), a small defense company
in Irvine, California, specializes
in the design, development,
and production of ammunition
and material handling systems
for the U.S. and international
military markets. WDC’s track
record includes a variety of air,
land and seaborne weapon systems
that require automated feed,
resupply, and optimized ammunition
packaging.
Mr. Lawrence D. Bacon is the
Director of Graphic Arts at WDC,
where for the past 16 years he
has been responsible for creating
numerous concepts for automatic
ammunition handling, loading,
and storage systems.
Dr. Asher H. Sharoni is the Director
of Engineering at WDC.
He holds an Sc.D. in Mechanical
Engineering from MIT and a
M.Sc. from the Technion, Israel
Institute of Technology. Dr. Sharoni
is a former colonel in the Israeli
Defense Forces, where he
was involved in various armored
weapon developments.


Нормальный технически-литературный перевод дам чудок попозжа,
Не пытайтесь загнать меня в угол - тогда я добрый
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Re: Т-90 против Абрамс глазами... "Армата" на старте.

Сообщение Володя » 16 авг 2013, 22:02

Andreas писал(а):Вы там, в Обетованной, на солнце перегрелись - сказано же, четырЯми язЫками владею (со словарём) :lol:

Ой Андрей Вы правы! Перегрелись,и ещё как.У нас жара стоит несусветная.В тени 35 и 80% влажности.На солнце может и за 40 завалить. :shock:
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Re: Т-90 против Абрамс глазами... "Армата" на старте.

Сообщение Володя » 16 авг 2013, 22:04

Фотография №5 мне сильно что то напоминает.Не один из проектов-догадок Арматы ли?
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Re: Т-90 против Абрамс глазами... "Армата" на старте.

Сообщение Andreas » 16 авг 2013, 22:26

EvMitkov писал(а):Вот материал, о котором говорил Андрей

???? ????
Grand merci

Эксклюзив, однако.
"Всё будет так, как мы хотим. На случай разных бед, У нас есть пулемёт Максим, У них Максима нет"
Hilaire Belloc, "The Modern Traveller" (C)
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Re: Т-90 против Абрамс глазами... "Армата" на старте.

Сообщение Володя » 16 авг 2013, 22:41

Ну вот,а Вы говорите только 4 языка.Вот ещё два освоили.
Озвучу первую строку: тода раба-большое спасибо.
Обычно отвечают:?????
Что значит "пожалуста" и звучит так: бевакаша.
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Re: Т-90 против Абрамс глазами... "Армата" на старте.

Сообщение Володя » 16 авг 2013, 22:43

Женя,давай откроем тему об иностранных языках.Она немного непрофильная конечно.Но в отдельных случаях может помочь.Кто что знает. :lol: :mrgreen: :lol:
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